Male Homosexual Preference: Where, When, Why? (PLoS ONE):
Male homosexual preference (MHP) has long been of interest to scholars studying the evolution of human sexuality. Indeed, MHP is partially heritable, induces a reproductive cost and is common. MHP has thus been considered a Darwinian paradox. Several questions arise when MHP is considered in an evolutionary context. At what point did MHP appear in the human evolutionary history? Is MHP present in all human groups? How has MHP evolved, given that MHP is a reproductively costly trait? These questions were addressed here, using data from the anthropological and archaeological literature. Our detailed analysis of the available data challenges the common view of MHP being a “virtually universal” trait present in humans since prehistory. The conditions under which it is possible to affirm that MHP was present in past societies are discussed. Furthermore, using anthropological reports, the presence or absence of MHP was documented for 107 societies, allowing us to conclude that evidence of the absence of MHP is available for some societies. A recent evolutionary hypothesis has argued that social stratification together with hypergyny (the hypergyny hypothesis) are necessary conditions for the evolution of MHP. Here, the link between the level of stratification and the probability of observing MHP was tested using an unprecedented large dataset. Furthermore, the test was performed for the first time by controlling for the phylogenetic non-independence between societies. A positive relationship was observed between the level of social stratification and the probability of observing MHP, supporting the hypergyny hypothesis. [. . .]
Alternatively, the increase in fertility in a close relative could be the result of an antagonistic factor. A sexually antagonistic gene that favors MHP in males and that increases fecundity in females has been proposed . Several studies support this hypothesis [4, 22, 31–34] and other have provided results that are consistent with predictions from this hypothesis [22, 34–38]. However why such an effect would not operate also in wild animals is unclear. Sexually antagonistic genes are either fixed (when the advantage is higher than the cost) or selected against (when the cost is higher than the advantage). When the frequency of a sexually antagonistic gene increases, selection to decrease the cost could eventually operate (for example through the selection of a modifier gene), thus decreasing the fixation time of the antagonistic gene. In any case, such sexually antagonistic genes are only transiently observed in natural population, perhaps explaining the absence–so far–of reports of homosexual preference in wild animals. A recent change in social conditions could change the relative fitness advantage and cost of such gene, thus enhancing its selection.
It has been recently proposed that selection for such sexually antagonistic genes could be promoted in social contexts specific to some human societies, where there is social stratification and hypergyny (i.e., a bride marries a groom of higher social status) . Indeed in a stratified society, populations are organized into different groups (or classes) in which people share similar socioeconomic conditions. These groups can be ranked hierarchically depending on their access to resources (with more resources for the top class). This social inequality also affects the expected reproductive success of each group (with higher reproductive success associated with the top class) [40–45]. This hypergyny hypothesis posits that females carrying the sexual antagonistic variant (associated with MHP in males) will signal increased levels of fertility (through higher femininity or attractiveness), thereby increasing their probability of reproducing in a wealthier social environment. Such a sexually antagonistic gene will then provide a direct advantage (by increasing fertility) and an indirect advantage (by increasing the probability of marrying into higher social classes). Such a process may promote MHP in stratified societies, and indeed, a comparative analysis suggests that social stratification level is a predictor of the presence of MHP in a society . Several potential confounding variables were considered in this analysis, with the conclusion that none of them significantly influenced the probability of report of homosexual preferences. These variables included population density (a good proxy of the number of indigenous people met by the anthropologist), geographical location and presence of moralizing gods. However, this comparative study considered only 48 societies, and phylogenetic dependence among them (Galton's problem)  was not clearly addressed. [. . .]
Contrary to the widely held view that MHP is present in all contemporary societies e.g., [20, 22], the anthropological data gathered here show that MHP is likely absent from some societies, especially those that display low levels of stratification. Anthropologists that have explicitly searched for signs of MHP have acknowledged its absence: among the Alorese “The fact is that homosexuality as such is not known either among women or men” ; “Homosexuality and onanism are unknown among the Bororo, as well as among the majority of the Indian tribes visited by me” ; “Homosexuality is said to be unknown in Ulithi, but it is admitted as a possibility” ; among the Ifaluk people “The people know of no cases of homosexuality or of sexual perversions, nor did I observe any” ; and among the Yanomamö, “Most of the unmarried young men in Bisaasi-tedi were having homosexual relationships with each other […] The men involved in these affairs, however, were hardly more than teenagers; I have no cases of adult men satisfying their sexual needs by homosexuality” . The most recent account of the absence of MHP concerns the Aka people, a hunter-gatherer group from Central African Republic for which an anthropologist noted that “The Aka, in particular, had a difficult time understanding the concept and mechanics of same sex relationships. No word existed and it was necessary to repeatedly describe the sexual act. [. . .]
A predictor of the presence of MHP in a given society is the level of social stratification. This result remains well supported even when non-independence among societies modelled as linguistic or geographical proximities is accounted for and when two independent measures of stratification level (using the EA or eHRAF) were considered. In all cases, the probability of observing MHP increases with the level of social stratification. It is thus expected that several social variables directly related to stratification would also be associated with MHP. There have been previous attempts to identify social variables related to homosexuality . However, Barber did not distinguished male and female homosexuality, and did not differentiate between homosexual preference (MHP) and behavior, thus his results are not directly comparable to ours. Despite these caveats, Barber found several traits often associated with traditional stratified societies (large community size, agricultural food, low levels of female control over sex), that predict his measure of the homosexual frequency. Unfortunately, he did not studied directly the stratification level.
In stratified societies, MHP is most likely not selected for directly as it represents a fitness cost, but we hypothesize that it is associated with a pleiotropic and antagonist factor. It has been proposed that the fitness advantage of such a pleiotropic factor is an increase in female fertility , which would affect the probability of females marrying men from higher social classes in stratified societies . This effect of stratification level on the probability of observing MHP is thus consistent with the hypergyny hypothesis . The present data do not allow the trait under selection in stratified societies to be identified. One possibility that cannot be excluded is that other types of pleiotropic factors have been selected for, as long as fitness advantages are conferred in a socially stratified context. In any case, social stratification remains the only pivotal identified social variable (i.e., defined above the individual level) associated with MHP in a cross-cultural analysis.
MHP was observed in all highly stratified societies (with at least 5 levels of stratification) of the present sample. As social stratification has occurred independently in various parts of the globe, two scenarios can be proposed about the emergence of MHP. First it is possible that MHP arose independently in those stratified societies. In this case, the life-history traits associated with MHP may not be expected to be the same in different independent societies, depending on the exact nature of the pleiotropic factor that is the target of selection. Some data support this hypothesis, for example, the older brother effect, associated with MHP in Western societies ), is not exactly replicated in other stratified societies: in Samoa, MHP is associated with an “older sister” effect [38, 90]. This suggests that the pleiotropic and antagonistic factor expressing MHP is recurrent, although the pleiotropic factor may vary. Alternatively, the factors that favor MHP could have preexisted to the expansion of humans across the globe. In this case, the selection due to the effect of social stratification could have promoted the same preexisting factors that favor MHP. Thus, the life-history traits associated with MHP in the various highly stratified societies should be similar by descent. As an example of supportive data, the frequency of gender atypical behaviors during childhood is reported to be higher in MHP than in heterosexual men (on the basis of recall) in Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines and the United States of America . This remains an open question, and more data are required. [. . .]
Social stratification remains the only known social variable significantly influencing the presence of MHP in a given society. This is consistent with the idea that a pleiotropic and antagonist factor is the target of selection in stratified societies and that MHP imposes a fitness cost on male fertility. Whether the selected trait is female fertility (under the hypergyny hypothesis) or another life-history trait has yet to be evaluated, although the selected trait may differ among various independent stratified societies. Data from pristine prehistoric societies (i.e., isolated from the influence of stratified societies) are currently non-existent. Unless other social variables (independent from social stratification) influencing MHP are identified, societies with low levels of stratification are predicted to display, at best, a low level of MHP individuals. Social stratification as a promoting factor of MHP is also consistent with currently available data showing that MHP seems to be absent in wild animals. This is because the type of social stratification displayed in humans has no equivalent in other animals. Human social stratification is defined across generations, and a given individual generally belongs to the same social class during his entire lifetime, and usually reproduces within the same class. The dominance rank in social non-human animals is generally transient (e.g. the tenure of the alpha chimpanzee lasts only few years, ) or, if transmitted to the next generation, restricted to one sex (e.g. female ranks among the spotted hyaena and some Cercopithecines species [97, 98]) [. . .]
Here we show that the commonly held view of the virtually universal presence of MHP since prehistoric time in human populations is not confirmed upon review of the cited data. Indeed, the existence of MHP in past times can never be proved or disproved using only archaeological remains: written texts are required to establish that homosexual preference was eventually present, and this information is probably definitively inaccessible for prehistoric (e.g., before written texts) societies. Today, MHP appears to be absent in some societies but present in others; this variability can be partly explained by the level of social stratification. This is consistent with a factor being selected for in a stratified society, despite a pleiotropic cost on functional male fertility (MHP). One possible candidate is a factor increasing female fertility, specifically by increasing the probability that a female marries males from higher social classes when hypergyny is enforced. As stratified societies are relatively recent (generally post-Neolithic), the substantial prevalence of MHP is most likely a recent phenomenon in humans and much remains to be understood.
homosexuality is no more "genetic" than IQ or any other psychological trait.
that is, it's not genetic, and as with the conservatards, claims that this psychological trait is "genetic" is just IDEOLOGY, just CONVENIENT.
n/a has personal insight into this trait as he is himself a homosexual. specifically he loves jewish cock.
at the same time most men would benefit from being a little less "homophobic".
women compliment other women on their appearance all the time.
but it's a taboo, a faux pas, a whatever, for one man to compliment another on his appearance.
maybe the result is a lot more fugly men.
of course n/a is not only gay, but he LOVES social stratification.
say what you will about the USSR, but NO FAGS!
of course the inequality of the anglo-prole-sphere is a perversion, is UN-natural.
but just like jewish cock, conservatives LOVE this perversion.
homosexuality is no more "genetic" than IQ or any other psychological trait.
Your statement is literally correct. Studies generally find lower heritability for sexual orientation than for IQ. Nonetheless, there's a significant heritable component.
that is, it's not genetic, and as with the conservatards, claims that this psychological trait is "genetic" is just IDEOLOGY, just CONVENIENT.
It is of course shitlibs for whom "born that way" is a convenient ideological plank.
Effeminate, mentally-unstable males are more likely to evince attraction to men, and in turn more likely to engage in homosexual behavior and identify as non-heterosexual. This doesn't mean culture and law have no effect on the incidence of homosexual behavior or identification. It doesn't even mean the underlying levels of effeminacy and mental instability might not be shifted much lower (eliminating most or all "same-sex attraction") given different environments (and if you read with better comprehension, you'd realize I just got done indicating I find it plausible rates of homosexuality could have been much lower in hunter-gatherer societies, without any genetic changes necessarily being required).
But spectrums of masculinity-femininity and mental stability/instability of the sort relevant to homosexuality will probably always exist and be influenced by genes to one degree or another in any natural human population.
it seems to be over your head and that of all hereditists that
particularism and hereditism are contradictory positions.
particularism is norms of reaction.
hereditism is universalism.
not to mention that hereditism and universalism are UN-kind.
but for the grace of God there go i, is crime think for hereditists and universalists alike.
one sees this in the case of blood pressure and adiposity, both of which have been found in many studies to be as, or nearly as, heritable as IQ.
high blood pressure is especially a problem for black Americans. it's also a problem for blacks living in cities in Africa. but rural black africans have bp lower than almost all white Americans.
the same for adiposity and Polynesians or Native Americans. all that's required to lower the rate of obesity and type II diabetes to the white American mean for the Pima, is the border between Arizona and Mexico.
the same is true for diabetes type II and American Indians (from India).
the same is true for schizophrenia and Melanesians. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6609726
that is, hereditists DO NOT understand that h^2 is always LOCAL to the particvular time and place and that when measured over the broadest range of environments is ALWAYS diminished, sometimes by so much that the claim that genes CAUSE such and such becomes RIDICULOUS, ABSURD, LAUGHABLE, A JOKE.
you might like this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnCzHC_EM18
n/a is like the benighted and blinkered prole who killed those black folks in SC.
NOW IMAGINE IF HE'D SHOT UP DAVOS!!!
as if black folks were white folks' problem.
HARDEE HAR HA!
what calls itself "conservative" economic policy in the anglosphere IS...
just another malignant UNIVERSALISM.
just another JUDAISM.
n/a himself has fallen prey to the universalism of behavior genetics and psychiatry even diagnosing hugh lygon as an "autist".
n/a cannot even think outside the jive provided to him by jews.
the jews needn't control the gentile by force. he controls his mind.
as that most famous jew said:
for those who have ears to hear, let them hear!
they did hear, ONCE! then their ears were stopped up. stopped up with UNIVERSALISM, with JUDAISM, with AMERICANISM.
n/a is still a SLAVE, poor sod, but his slavery is PSYCHICAL not physical.
he's still trying to beat the JEW at his own GAME.
he still hasn't caught on that FINANCIALIZATION is the inevitable end of CAPITALISM.
that CAPITALISM is MORE JEWISH than Soviet Communism EVER WAS.
Stalin KILLED all the JEWISH BOLSHEVIKS BEFORE THE WAR EVEN STARTED...except for kaganovich the cobbler.
in fact the foremost apologists for slave n/a's "conservatism" were two JEWS.
1. Milton Friedman
2. Ayn Rand
i mean all one need do is leave his tony suburb and buy a granola bar at a convenience store.
most European Americans are disgusting moronic slobs.
racism is just the racist's interpreting his particularist instinct in the universal terms provided him by his jewish masters.
FUCKING GROW UP!
STOP PROSTRATING YOURSELF TO JEWISH COCK!
I’ve seen Mugabe commenting at various sites for years now and I never knew what his point was. Now I discover it is that “hereditists DO NOT understand that h^2 is always LOCAL to the particvular time and place”. All that ranting for years over a trivial idea that all “hereditists” understand.
all that ranting...?
AND you still DON'T understand it fucktard
or you COULD NOT BE an hereditist.
what're ya gonna do?
the ONLY commenter on HBD blogs who's smarter than ALL of their authors by those authors' OWN STANDARD!!!
many claim they understand it, but NONE of them ACTUALLY DOES,...
NOT Charles, the cross-burner, Murray.
NOT Steve, the striving chink, Shoe.
NOT Jensen, the 1/4 JEW, mathematical illiterate.
NOT Greg, short fat purblind begging for money, COCKRING.
IT SPEAKS, BUT IT DOESN'T KNOW THE MEANING OF WHAT IT SAYS.
HBDers ON THIS ISSUE ARE LIKE THE BRAHMINS WHO LEARN THE SYLLABLES OF SANSKRIT HYMNS YET HAVE ABSOLUTELY NO IDEA WHAT ANY OF IT ACTUALLY MEANS.
the JEWS have crawled up all y'all's butts and now control your minds.
not figuratively. but REALLY!
psychology and psychiatry and behavior genetics, despite all their JEWISH detractors, are the MOST jewish of all academic departments, with the EXCEPTION of ECONOMICS!
CONTEMPORARY ANGLO-AMERICAN CONSERVATISM IS JEWISH THOROUGHLY, IN EVERY FIBER.
DER FUHRER RIGHTLY DISMISSED IQ TESTS AS JEWISH.
THINGS HAVE GONE SO FAR THAT THE GENTILE CANNOT EVEN THINK WITHOUT THE CATEGORIES AND SCHEMES PROVIDE HIM BY HIS JEWISH MASTERS AND AT THE SAME TIME IS TOTALLY UNAWARE OF THIS MENTAL SLAVERY. HE THINKS HE CAN WIN A DEBATE WITH THE JEWS ON THEIR OWN TERMS.
GORE VIDAL, HIMSELF A HOMO, IS ONE OF THE VERY VERY FEW EXCEPTIONS.
hereditism is a UNIVERSALIST IDEOLOGY, aka a JEWISH IDEOLOGY.
the facts are that the anglo-sphere of the developed world has the largest trade deficits in the developed world, the greatest inequality, the least social mobility, ETC.
THE FACTS IS that...
neo-liberalism AND HEREDITISM are ANGLO-AMERICAN fetishes...that is JEWISH fetishes...and america and britain have so far succeeded in FORCING it on the whole world.
THERE'S NO MYSTERY IN IT AT ALL!
WHEREVER HITLER FAILED TO EXTERMINATE THE JEWS IS NOW IN THEIR GRIP AND ABOVE ALL IN THEIR INTELLECTUAL GRIP.
FREE YOURSELF FROM MENTAL SLAVERY.
the hereditists DO HAVE an inkling of the truth.
BUT their elaborations are, unknown to them, constrained by the terms and schemes provided them by mass media and academia.
ALL OF WHICH are universalist.
and what is the upshot of "scientific racism" IN A UNIVERSALIST CONTEXT?
ALL it would amount to is no race based affirmative action. THAT'S IT!
SO WHAT MOTIVATES SO MANY TO WRITE THESE BLOGS???
THEY ARE PARTICULARISTS WHO CANNOT UNDERSTAND THEIR OWN POSITION OUTSIDE THE FRAME PROVIDED THEM BY THEIR UNIVERSALIST/JEWISH MASTERS.
THE TRUTH AGAIN:
THE ULTIMATE HISTORICAL POINT IS THAT CONSERVATARDS AND HEREDITISTS HAVE YET TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE GREAT WAR.
HITLER GOT IT.
THE NAZIS GOT IT.
AMERICANS DON'T EVEN GET THE IMPORT OF THEIR OWN CIVIL WAR.
GANDHI EXPRESSES THE TRUTH!!!
EL MOMENTO VERDAD!!!
non-violence was great for Gandhi and his immitator MLK, jr.
but just imagine if the moronic mass shooters were shooting up guilty people rather than innocent people...
if bin laden had just crashed those planes into the pentagon and the whitehouse...
even the jew media couldn't have called it terrorism.
as one of my heroes Pat Buchannan has said,
For terrorism is simply a tactic, and arguably the most effective tactic of the national liberation movements of the 20th century.
it was true of the White Boys and the IRA. and northern ireland will eventually be a part of the now much MORE prosperous ROI.
oh my dear sir, india is british. we're hardly an alien power.
expresses the jewi-ness of the anglo-sphere.
that was a good 6 pack of IPA.
if n/a doesn't shut down his UTTERLY RETARDED blog then i'll know he's a jew...or at least a proselyte...but un-like oncelos the jews won't welcome him or fete him. he'll just be another goy.
and the prole zombies like n/a and ALL hereditists,
following THEIR OWN LOGIC...
WOULD BE RULED BY JEWS AND CHINKS.
IT'S THE ULTIMATE STOCKHOLM SYNDROME.
BUT THEY CAN'T HE'P IT. IT'S ALL IN THE GENES. ;)
NONE OF THEM HAS EVER BEEN TO EUROPE, WHERE IT'S A GIVEN THAT AMERICANS ARE FAT IDIOTS CONTROLLED BY JEWS.
Why aprove these troll comments???????
Comments are open/unmoderated.
1. Stop posting as "Anonymous" and stick to a name, so others can easily skip your comments.
2. Pay attention to who you're addressing, and argue against things I've actually said. I've never been a GNXP-style "cognitive elitist", and interest in behavioral genetics does not imply advocacy of GNXP-style "cognitive elitism".
3. Think your arguments through and work on your general level of coherence.
even diagnosing hugh lygon as an "autist".
I specifically called you "self-diagnosed", on the basis of an exchange you once had with Dr. Shoe or someone at his blog.
then that someone wasn't me fucktard. was NOT me.
autism is a tragedy, but today i'd guess less than 1 in 10 diagnosed with this ailment actually have a problem.
psychiatry is a business and children are easy marks. especially the children of...
1. hicks, who don't know any better, bow to their betters, and vote GOP.
2. the most socialized, the "over" socialized.
coherence can only be judged by the coherent.
to argue or redargue the claims made on blogs such as yours is to participate in a discourse with FALSE assumptions.
n/a is a proselyte at best.
and that you should insist on these assumptions, ignorant of their being assumptions is sufficient to JUDGE you...
you're a moron.
you don't even know what coherent and apert mean.
because you're genes are SHIT?
BECAUSE YOU'RE LAZY, INTELLECTUALLY LAZY.
and you imagine that you're some sort of school-marm.
so i'm thinking you don't just love jewish cock, you love cock, full stop.
if n/a were a SERIOUS person he would...
and read again...
it's not narcissism.
where's n/a's investments blog. i'd like to know. but there's no such thing. it's the empty set.
n/a loves rentiers but apparently isn't one.
what's that called?
the "autist" or otherwise "socially retarded" here is n/a.
he imagines that his blog will effect change.
he imagines that all he need do is obey the jews...in order to destroy the jews.
this is the fucking problem.
not only are jews systematically preferred in american society, but...
smart gentiles are systematically discriminated against...
the smart goy is a threat to the jew.
so the more goyish in politics are ridiculous
who cannot interpret his own presentiments without the aid of the jews,
who cannot speak, except in yiddish,
thinks that he is free.
this is the genius of the jews.
If you need your ex-girlfriend or ex-boyfriend to come crawling back to you on their knees (even if they're dating somebody else now) you gotta watch this video
(VIDEO) Why your ex will NEVER come back...
omg these comments are hilarious
My name is Austin I want to say a big thanks to Dr John for the good job he has done for me, , After taking his product today my sexual life is health and balance am living up to my wife expectation. For the past 11 years i have been struggling with weak erection and premature ejaculation. I have spend money on it but no cure until i took this product from Dr John just within few days i got cured. He also cure other illnesses, you can contact him on email firstname.lastname@example.org. Whats App number:+2348060259313
best mobile repair in hyderabad bigrepair mobile repairing in hyderabad
Post a Comment