Vector plots revealed patterns of superoinferior compression, lateral expansion, and posterior recession depending on the population/subpopulation, location, and age groups examined. These findings indicate that adult craniofacial curvature shape is not static throughout human life. Instead, age-related spatial modifications occur in various regions of the craniofacial skeleton. Moreover, these regional alterations vary not only through time, but across human populations and the sexes.Sexual dimorphism in chin shape:
Sexual dimorphism in chin shape was assessed using PC loadings in the pooled geographic sample, and statistically significant differences were found. These findings provide the first quantitative, morphologically based evidence in support of adaptive hypotheses that predict dimorphism in chin shape, including the sexual selection hypothesis.