ASHG 2015: ancient Anatolians similar to European Neolithic farmers and distinct from modern Near Easterners

Genome-wide data on 34 ancient Anatolians identifies the founding population of the European Neolithic.

I. Lazaridis1,2 ; D. Fernandes3 ; N. Rohland1,2 ; S. Mallick1,2,4 ; K. Stewardson1,4 ; S. Alpaslan5 ; N. Patterson2 ; R. Pinhasi*3 ; D. Reich*1,2,4

1) Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA; 2) Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA USA; 3) Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 4) Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA; 5) Independent physical anthropologist, Netherlands.

It has hitherto been difficult to obtain genome-wide data from the Near East. By targeting the inner ear region of the petrous bone for extraction [Pinhasi et al., PLoS One 2015] and using a genome-wide capture technology [Haak et al., Nature, 2015] we achieved unprecedented success in obtaining genome-wide data on more than 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphism targets from 34 Neolithic individuals from Northwestern Anatolia (~6,300 years BCE), including 18 at greater than 1× coverage. Our analysis reveals a homogeneous population that is genetically a plausible source for the first farmers of Europe in the sense of (i) having a high frequency of Y-chromosome haplogroup G2a, and (ii) low Fst distances from early farmers of Germany (0.004 ± 0.0004) and Spain (0.014 ± 0.0009). Model-free principal components and model-based admixture analyses confirm a strong genetic relationship between Anatolian and European farmers. We model early European farmers as mixtures of Neolithic Anatolians and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers, revealing very limited admixture with indigenous hunter-gatherers during the initial spread of Neolithic farmers into Europe. Our results therefore provide an overwhelming support to the migration of Near Eastern/Anatolian farmers into southeast and Central Europe around 7,000-6,500 BCE [Ammerman & Cavalli Sforza, 1984, Pinhasi et al., PLoS Biology, 2005]. Our results also show differences between early Anatolians and all present-day populations from the Near East, Anatolia, and Caucasus, showing that the early Anatolian farmers, just as their European relatives, were later demographically replaced to a substantial degree.


Anonymous said...

n/autist might like this:

so what is the probability that 36% or more (so not exactly 36%) of the 400 richest americans are from a sub-population of americans 2.5% of the total population? selected at random/with random selection.

the answer is...according to excel...

8.67 in 10^32.

10^12 is one trillion.

so the probability is 8.67 in 100 million trillion trillion.

reminds one of charlie rose's guests list and david irving's "why do they hate us?" catalogue of the reasons why the jews are hated. no surprise, i can't find the url.

at 5% the probability is 1.19 in 10^21, a little better, 1.19 in 1 billion trillion.

i'll post the spreadsheet on a tiny url if you have a break from your jew cock worship.

of the ten biggest real estate developers in the us in terms of sq feet 9 are jews. trump is the only gentile.

the probability of that? that 9 of 10 or 10 of 10 would all be from a population only 2.5% of the total with random selection is...

1.87 in 10^11.

or 1.87 in 100 billion.

Anonymous said...

but the greeks were NOt replaced.

and no such study was needed in the first place.

one need only read Aristotle's politics.

therein he describes the Pontic Greeks as blond and blue eyed.

the Pontic Greeks are just across the Dardanelles from the NW Anatolians.

Anonymous said...

the translation i don't know.

aristotle may have been referring to these folks

rather than the thracians.

Santoculto said...

''n/autist might like this:''

What your problem with autistic people**
I doubt that Na is autist!

Anonymous said...

I don't remember reading anything about personal descriptions in Aristotle's politics. He referred to Heraclea, a city in Pontus but didn't make any descriptions.

Anyway, they might not be similar to near-easterners but that doesn't make them close to europeans either.

This is where a sample from neolithic NW Anatolia clusters, quite a bit south of sardinians.