Ethnic origins of Quebec regional populations estimated from genealogy


Tables from Admixed Ancestry and Stratification of Quebec Regional Populations:

Population stratification results from unequal, nonrandom genetic contribution of ancestors and should be reflected in the underlying genealogies. In Quebec, the distribution of Mendelian diseases points to local founder effects suggesting stratification of the contemporary French Canadian gene pool. Here we characterize the population structure through the analysis of the genetic contribution of 7,798 immigrant founders identified in the genealogies of 2,221 subjects partitioned in eight regions. In all but one region, about 90% of gene pools were contributed by early French founders. In the eastern region where this contribution was 76%, we observed higher contributions of Acadians, British and American Loyalists. To detect population stratification from genealogical data, we propose an approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) of immigrant founders' genetic contributions. This analysis was compared with a multidimensional scaling of pairwise kinship coefficients. Both methods showed evidence of a distinct identity of the northeastern and eastern regions and stratification of the regional populations correlated with geographical location along the St-Lawrence River. In addition, we observed a West-East decreasing gradient of diversity. Analysis of PC-correlated founders illustrates the differential impact of early versus latter founders consistent with specific regional genetic patterns. These results highlight the importance of considering the geographic origin of samples in the design of genetic epidemiology studies conducted in Quebec. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the study of deep ascending genealogies can accurately reveal population structure. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. [. . .]

Time of arrival and origins of the founders

In the genealogies of the 2,221 subjects sampled, we identified a total of 7,798 immigrant founders (Table 1 and Fig. 2A). Among these founders, there were 2.6 times as many males as females (Fig. 2B), consistent with the skewed male-to-female ratio among the first settlers of Nouvelle-France (Charbonneau et al., 1993). Seventy-two percent of the immigrant founders settled during the French Regime (1608–1760) and 24% came in two major waves of immigration, the first between 1663 and 1673 and the second a hundred years later between 1755 and 1765 (Fig. 2B, Supporting Information Fig. S2 and Table S2). The first wave corresponds to the arrival of French women, the so-called ‘‘Filles du Roy’’ who were sent from France to encourage stable family-based settlement in Nouvelle-France (Charbonneau et al., 1993). The second wave coincides with the British Conquest. It included Acadians escaping deportation by the British from their original settlements in Acadia as well as French soldiers who stayed in Quebec once the war ended (Charbonneau et al., 2000).

Sixty-eight percent of the immigrant founders came from France. French founders represent the vast majority of Europeans who settled before the British Conquest (Fig. 2C - Supporting Information Table S3). Only 3% of the founders married before 1700 did not originate directly from France. The proportion of such founders increased to 35% in the period from 1700 to 1760. Acadians represent 14% of all the immigrant founders (Fig. 2C - Supporting Information Table S3). The remaining founders of known origin came from Great- Britain (4%), Germany (2%), Ireland (3%), other European countries (1%) and other American locations (besides Acadia) (4%) (Supporting Information Table S3). Amerindian origin was documented for one per cent of founders. Overall, the period of arrival and origins of the immigrant founders appearing in the genealogical ascendance of our contemporary sample well reflected those of the pioneer immigrants that settled in Quebec prior to the British Conquest (Charbonneau et al., 2000).

Partitioning of founders among regions

Not every founder contributed descendants to all regions of Quebec. One fifth of the founders (n 5 1,612; 20.7%) were common, that is, they contributed to all eight regions of Quebec (Fig. 2A). More than half of the founders (n 5 4,330; 55.5%) contributed to 2–7 regions and more than one fifth (n 5 1,856; 23.8%) were specific to only one region (Fig. 2A). All founders common to all eight regions married during the French rule and 97.2% of them before 1700. By contrast, 70% of the specific founders arrived after the installment of the British rule in 1760. We observed a negative correlation between founders’ arrival time and the number of regions where they have descendants (Pearson’s r 5 20.6, P-value \ 2.2 3 10216).

Mosaic origins of Quebec regional populations

Nearly 90% of the regional gene pools were contributed by French founders (Table 2) and 2–6% by Acadians, who are second in numerical importance. Other groups of immigrant founders each contributed 2% or less. These proportions were similar across regions except for the East where the genetic contribution of French founders was reduced (76%) to the advantage of Acadian (11%), British (3.4%), and American founders (3.5%). Despite the elevated contribution of French founders, the subjects from our sample were nearly all admixed: on average, each genealogies contained immigrant founders from 6.75 distinct origins. While virtually all genealogies (99.1%) had at least one founder originating from France (Table 3), founders of other origins also appeared in a large proportion of the genealogies: British in 93% of genealogies, Acadian in 79% and notably, Amerindian in 47%.

Differential contribution of early and late founders

[. . .] All regional populations of Quebec (except for the North of Montreal) had a minimum of a third of their gene pools descending from the earliest founders, defined as those founders who married before the first major immigration wave of 1660 (Supporting Information Table S4). These founders were mostly French, represented 9.3% of all founders (Supporting Information Table S2) and 93% of them were found in at least six out of eight regions (75% common to all regions). For the North-East and Quebec City ancestors, the contribution of the earliest founders was even higher, increasing over time up to 50% and 44%, respectively. This increase is not compatible with a simple model of population expansion (Supporting Information Fig. S5). Even if we assume that the rate of migration tends to zero, the contribution of the earliest founders is expected to stabilize and not to increase. For the North-East and Quebec City area, it suggests that the earliest founders had on average a higher number of descendants than expected under the assumption of uniform reproductive success of all founders. This points to a higher reproductive success of the earliest founders and their descendants throughout the period.

A substantial fraction of regional gene pools was also explained by founders married between 1660 and 1700 (Figs. 4A,B and Supporting Information Fig. S4). These founders represented 32% of all founders (Supporting Information Table S2), were mostly French (97%) and had a lower regional representation than the earliest founders with 74% appearing in at least six regions (40% common to all eight regions). However, the fraction of the gene pool explained by the 1660–1700 founders differed across regions as it decreased to the profit either of the earliest founders (in the Quebec City area and North- East) and/or of latecomers, arrived after 1700 (in all regions). Notably, the East region displayed the highest contribution of late founders (Supporting Information Fig. S4) who are more specific and have more diversified origins (Table 2).

20 comments:

Ben10 said...

I would have assumed more amerindian ancestry. Also, Quebec is not an homogenous melting pot. In the Montreal area, you can certainly see a stronger irish-british admixture than in the north.

Anonymous said...

Gee, when I was in Quebec, Im found an enormous amount of Nordish-looking and behaving White folks -- far more than in modern-day AmeriKwa, in fact.

Anonymous said...

Gee, when I was in Quebec, Im found an enormous amount of Nordish-looking and behaving White folks -- far more than in modern-day AmeriKwa, in fact.

Then why don't you move to Quebec and leave us WASP Americans and Canadians alone?

Anonymous said...

Lousy fucking Canadian frogs.

They should all be killed for being part redskin!

Anonymous said...

And then Palin should be shot in the face for fucking a dirty Eskimo.

(Note: That wasn't a death threat because I could've been talking about oral sex.)

Come Nordicists, let us clear out the traitorous deadwood from our fragile race!

Anonymous said...

That bitch and her dirty white woman stealing Eskimo fuck monkey often spend time right next to each other.

Anonymous said...

Just imagine what would happen if Palin gets elected president in 2012.

Every little Nordish girl will want to grow up to spread her legs for a filthy Eskimo subhuman, and thenceforth to allow his non-white seed to grow inside her fetid womb.

Then instead of raising Nordish children, she'll raise disgusting little Eskimo cunts who'll get knocked up as teenagers, as you'd expect from such mongrel swine fit for nothing but execution.

Anonymous said...

No race mixers in the White House!

At least Obama had the decency to marry another nigger.

Anonymous said...

Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 3:01 AM
Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 3:53 AM
Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 3:55 AM
Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 3:59 AM
Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 4:01 AM


Asinine swarthoid delusionally thinks it's being hilarious

Anonymous said...

I'll have you know that the great Nordicist thinker Mark, of Occidental Dissent fame, has made very clearly to all who have eyes to see and ears to hear that Sarah Palin is in a mixed race marriage.

Plus, she's actually proud of it!

All the time she'll crow about how wonderfully "diverse" her family is.

Of course we Nordicists should only vote agaisnt her, as opposed to doing anything drastic like raping her to death.

In the same way, we should reject the absurd ideas of that Rassa fellow, who said he wanted to drown everyone in southern europe.

We can't allow ourselves to be lowered to the animalistic moral level of filthy mongrels like Todd Palin, and dirty rotton swarthoids like Al Pacino.

Anonymous said...

John Thune is a fine looking blue eyed Nordish fellow.

He even has a grandfather from Norway, if I recall correctly.

His wife is 100% Nordish, and his children actually look like Americans.

That's all more than you can say for that black eyed whore Sarah Palin, with her disgusting non-blonde and non-red hair.

Anonymous said...

What's up, Mikey? Why does some with visible negroid admixture like yourself spend his time throwing tantrums on racialist websites?

Anonymous said...

Don't you have something better to do with your time, like going down to the barn and breeding with horses?

Anonymous said...

Does a poorly constructed website hawking an applet really constitute an "international software company"?

Anonymous said...

Reginald is fantasizing about "raping [Sarah Palin] to death" and "shoot[ing] her in the face". This is sickening and very worrisome stuff. His violent desires are getting more and more frightening. He's a sick, raving madman, and hopefully a mental institution stages an intervention before he acts on these sick fantasies.

Anonymous said...

This is one of the best blogs on the net, you get Nordicism, quality genetic info and comedy all in one. Hilarious!

Anonymous said...

Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 3:01 AM
Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 3:53 AM
Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 3:55 AM
Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 3:59 AM
Anonymous said... December 14, 2010 4:01 AM

Asinine swarthoid delusionally thinks it's being hilarious
-
What's up, Mikey? Why does some with visible negroid admixture like yourself spend his time throwing tantrums on racialist websites?


Equally asinine paranoid-schizo delusionally thinks it's being 'clever'

Rassenhygieniker said...

"Anonymous said...

In the same way, we should reject the absurd ideas of that Rassa fellow, who said he wanted to drown everyone in southern europe."

This was just one idea, there are many ways who may be more pracical, one such is that we could also engineer a viral biological agent that would only infect the subhumans with pyrin gene mutations (responsible for the "Mediterranean Fever").

Anonymous said...

This was just one idea, there are many ways who may be more pracical, one such is that we could also engineer a viral biological agent that would only infect the subhumans with pyrin gene mutations (responsible for the "Mediterranean Fever").

Classic Paranoid Schizophrenia

*Let's pray for brother Rassa-frassa ... that he won't lose all his 'marbles'... .

hailtoyou said...

Among these founders, there were 2.6 times as many males as females

How is this possible? Multiple males marrying one woman?